According to Robins pathology, “ulcer is the breach of the continuity of skin, epithelium or mucous membrane caused by sloughing out of inflamed necrotic tissue. This page was last edited on 28 December 2017, at 09:00. Gallstone definition, trauma history questionnaire pdf abnormal stonelike mass, usually of cholesterol, formed in the gallbladder or bile passages. See more synonyms on Thesaurus.
A concretion in the gallbladder or in a bile duct, composed chiefly of cholesterol, calcium salts, and bile pigments. 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. A small, hard, abnormal mass composed chiefly of cholesterol, calcium salts, and bile pigments, formed in the gallbladder or in a bile duct. On some occasions, the entire gallbladder must be removed by surgery. 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Study is one of the largest investigations of childhood abuse and neglect and later-life health and well-being. The original ACE Study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente from 1995 to 1997 with two waves of data collection. Over 17,000 Health Maintenance Organization members from Southern California receiving physical exams completed confidential surveys regarding their childhood experiences and current health status and behaviors. The CDC continues ongoing surveillance of ACEs by assessing the medical status of the study participants via periodic updates of morbidity and mortality data. The ACE Pyramid represents the conceptual framework for the ACE Study.
The ACE Study has uncovered how ACEs are strongly related to development of risk factors for disease, and well-being throughout the life course. The Family Health History and Health Appraisal questionnaires were used to collect information on child abuse and neglect, household challenges, and other socio-behavioral factors in the original CDC-Kaiser ACE Study. The questionnaires are not copyrighted, and there are no fees for their use. Each category is further divided into multiple subcategories. Participant demographic information is available by gender, race, age, and education. The prevalence of ACEs is organized by category. All ACE questions refer to the respondent’s first 18 years of life.
A parent, stepparent, or adult living in your home swore at you, insulted you, put you down, or acted in a way that made you afraid that you might be physically hurt. A parent, stepparent, or adult living in your home pushed, grabbed, slapped, threw something at you, or hit you so hard that you had marks or were injured. A household member was a problem drinker or alcoholic or a household member used street drugs. A household member was depressed or mentally ill or a household member attempted suicide. Your parents were ever separated or divorced. A household member went to prison.
Someone in your family helped you feel important or special, you felt loved, people in your family looked out for each other and felt close to each other, and your family was a source of strength and support. Collected during Wave 2 only. Items were reverse-scored to reflect the framing of the question. Demographic Information for CDC-Kaiser ACE Study Participants, Waves 1 and 2. Wave 2 data may contain slightly different reports of participants’ demographic information. Prevalence of ACEs by Category for CDC-Kaiser ACE Study Participants by Sex, Waves 1 and 2.
Wave 2 data may contain slightly different prevalence estimates. ACE Score Prevalence for CDC-Kaiser ACE Study Participants by Sex, Waves 1 and 2. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kaiser Permanente. The ACE Study Survey Data . Almost two-thirds of study participants reported at least one ACE, and more than one in five reported three or more ACEs.
The ACE score, a total sum of the different categories of ACEs reported by participants, is used to assess cumulative childhood stress. ACEs and negative health and well-being outcomes across the life course. A graded dose-response means that as the dose of the stressor increases the intensity of the outcome also increases. This list is not exhaustive. We gratefully acknowledge the valuable contribution of Dr.
Peter Ventevogel, Senior Mental Health Officer at the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva, Switzerland. We also greatly appreciate the input of Dr. Stuart Turner, and the ISTSS Public Health and Policy Committee. In addition, we thank Savannah Minihan and Shraddha Kashyap for their assistance in the preparation of this document.
Exposure to traumatic events and daily stressors contribute substantially to psychopathology in refugees and asylum-seekers. Trauma-focused interventions have the strongest evidence base to reduce PTSD symptoms in adult and child refugees and asylum-seekers. Culture impacts on conceptualization, expression and treatment of psychological distress in refugees and asylum-seekers. There exist numerous logistical, cultural and situational barriers to accessing treatment for psychological disorders for refugees and asylum-seekers. There is promising evidence regarding scalable interventions for refugees and asylum-seekers that overcome barriers to accessing treatment for psychological symptoms, however these require further evaluation. Evidence-based interventions should be made available for, and implemented where possible with, refugees with psychological disorders.